Anaximander’s contributions

Anaximander’s contributions: to philosophy, astronomy, evolution, geography, psychology. Introduction. Anaximander was a famous Greek philosopher born in 610 BC in Miletus. He is also called the founder of astronomy. He wrote much more on cosmology, geography, and astronomy that created a world map and survived for many centuries.

Anaximander's contributions: to philosophy, astronomy, evolution, geography, psychology
Anaximander’s contributions: to philosophy, astronomy, evolution, geography, psychology

The first thinker to create a cosmology was Anaximander. He used mathematical proportions, geometry and symmetry to make the map perfect because he was a confirmed rationalist, and his theories were unique from earlier peoples. He offered foreshadowed and mystical conceptions that were much more advanced than former astronomers.

It was said in earlier theories that Earth is suspended in the air and other displays that any support from heaven supports the Earth. But he states that Earth is kept at the center of Earth because there is no logic to the movement of Earth.

Anaximander’s contribution to philosophy

The Anaximander contributed as he framed his work on the principle of the concept of empire and all things called arche. Besides this, work on cosmology is highlighted; it was based on the formation of the world; he was a successful man who logically presented some ideas about the appearance of animals and man on Earth.

This Greek philosopher contributed a lot to philosophy, but unfortunately, some part of his written work remained, and later thinkers such as Aristotle explained his thoughts.

The Arjé

Many experts believe that Anaximander was the first philosopher who used Arjé to designate the essential element of reality. So, the arche is primordial for the generation of the world. The vital contribution was arche was not an element of Earth, air, fire and water. The arche has unique characteristics, and it is before all.


After the statement that arche is not any known element, he tried to find and define it. He left only a few writings where he explains and gives arche names.

Ápeiron comes from the word”peras”, a prefix, means limit, so arche is defined as something unlimited or indeterminate. It will be an essential element of the world from which all matters are created. The nature of arche can never be exhausted, so the world will remain forever.

Mechanical Apeiron

When the experts tried to study the Asian concepts as the basis of the world, they considered it a mechanical and conscious thing such as God. Overall, Anaximander does not believe in nature, an omniscient entity that is the control center of the Universe. However, its influence without consciousness would be mechanical.

Other thinkers and Apeiron workers suggest that analyzing his writings says that he is the first philosopher. He has strong opinions about the world’s creation and intends to resort to all-powerful creators. He thinks that when the contrasting elements of the Universe join together, Apeiron begins to separate.

According to the thoughts of Anaximander, Earth is separated from heat and considered cold. The Earth is filled with the layer of air inside and outer, surrounded by fire. After breaking a layer of fire, the sun, moon, and stars came into existence.

Apparition of living beings

The primary research of Anaximander consisted of the planets and stars sp. His main theories consisted of the first living beings. He thinks that Earth comes from water, so all other things come from fire. About the existence of humans, he believes that humans formed inside other animals such as fish. Once they become strong, humans become able to be born and live in the sea.

Anaximander’s contribution to astronomy

In history, Anaximander was the first astronomer who described that the sun is a ball of enormous mass. And he also expressed that the sun is far away from the Earth. Anaximander was the first astronomer who described a system in space where the celestial bodies turned at different distances from their focal point. 

Anaximander has outstanding contributions to astronomy as he was the first person who described the celestial sphere. He was the first person who drew a map of the whole world, and other philosophers corrected this map in the next century. Anaximander set up the shadow of a casting rod at Sparta. He used this technique to describe the hours of the day. Anaximander is famous in the history books as he is known as the founder or father of astronomy.

First of all, if we read his search work, then his astronomy will look bizarre and obscure. Some people think that he was confused in his search; he did not provide us with enough satisfaction. The problem is that people do not read his astronomy seriously. 

One way to understand his astronomy is to take his research seriously and read them as if you are an astronomer, then absolutely, you will understand it easily. By your closer inspection, the thing that will first be strange for you will be perfect after carefully doing his research. He explains Speculative Astronomy to other people. Anaximander also described that celestial bodies make a complete circle. 

We see that Earth floats in the Universe without any support or pillars. According to Anaximander, the shape of Earth is celestial; its diameter is more significant than three times its height. Anaximander provides the wrong order of stars, sun, moon and Earth. Later on, many new astronomers give the correct order of the celestial bodies. He described that all heavenly bodies are in a wheel-like shape.

Anaximander’s contribution to the evolution

Anaximander has made significant contributions to evolution. He described that the first creature originated from moist places or elements by evaporation.

Anaximander put the idea that man originated from fishes or other reptiles. Man needed an extended period for survival, and if a man did not survive in the past, he would not be in his present form by chance. In his research, he described that everything originated from an infinite thing or element, such as water.

Anaximander tried his best to know about the first creature of the Universe and how it came into being. He was known as the first person who described the evolution in cosmology. Anaximander was quite an observer, so he began to observe evolution. He was stuck in the idea of how humans came into being. Although it seems ridiculous how life can come into being by fish, Anaximndar had its reason for how it came into being by fish. 

Anaximander observed that fetal developments in humans and animals are like fish. He described that if a fetus remained in the womb for an extended period, it would change its structure and turn into a different kind of creature. It’s complicated to believe that man was created from fish, but much evidence shows that it’s right. Even if this concept is not possible, many scientists find new ways for further details.

Anaximander’s contributions to geography

Anaximander wrote many treatises on geography. Anaximander was the first person who provided the map of the whole world. About 2600 years ago, Anaximander was the first person in history who described that Earth exists as a solitary body; Earth does not need to rest on anything due to its isolated nature. 

He was so impressed by the structure of Earth that he made a map of the whole world. He described the world as a whole on one map. Anaximander wants to increase his knowledge about the known areas of the world. He believed that the inhabited area of the world was flat and was made up at the top of the cylinder. He made a map in a circular shape, and in his map, all world areas are surrounded by seas.

Anaximander made the map for the following reasons; this map would be helpful for trade between the Miletus colonies and the other regions around the sea. To seek knowledge of the whole world, Anaximander made a map to serve human beings. Anaximander did not restrict her ideas to geography and astronomy. Instead, he performed a vital role in other fields of sciences.

Anaximander’s Contributions to Psychology

Anaximander has vital contributions to psychology; he was the author of some surviving lines of western philosophy. He argued and discussed the boundless. Anaximander worked on geography and biology; he had an award of first speculative astronomer in history.

Anaximander was the first metaphysician that talked about the unlimited. His name will remain forever in history because he made many pictures of statues, and these statues are on the market, telling us about his great work. Anaximander originated the first-ever image of the open Universe.

If we look over his entire life, he was a great person who devoted his life to the welfare of the whole people. He gave his services in every field of life to help human beings. His name is in the history with golden memories of his work.

His work motivated another philosopher to think deeply about the Universe. He is the founder of astronomy as he was the first person who describe the celestial bodies in space. His services in all fields of life are appreciable as he started thinking over everything deeply.

Read also: Anaximenes’ contributions

External resource: Wikipedia

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