Ontology and epistemology fundamentals

Ontology and epistemology: are examples of, in research, Sociology, of feminism, of constructivism. Introduction. If anyone wants to study philosophy, Ontology and Epistemology are the most complex terms studied in this subject.

Ontology and epistemology: are examples of, in research, Sociology, of feminism, of constructivism
Ontology and epistemology: are examples of, in research, Sociology, of feminism, of constructivism

Here are two terms one is an epistemology which finds out a way to understand and know what things exist in the universe, while the other term ontology, tries to search out what is there in the universe

Let’s explain these branches of philosophy


The branch of philosophy that deals with existence and reality is called Ontology. This ontology mainly deals with truth and nature of reality, such as ‘What is the nature of existence?’

The word ontology is taken from the Greek words’ ontos’ that means logos or study and being. It points out the things that exist around us. This study relates to the nature of becoming existence, similarities and differences. The question of ontology usually starts from “what”. The ontology is generalized from philosophy to information science, medicine and advanced physics.

The ontology helps us understand questionable things such as what is Ai, What is God, What will happen after death? Etc. It teaches us whether things exist or not. It also grouped various existing entities based on similar characteristics and found similarities. The people who deal with ontology understand and relate particular things.

Ontology is based on the nature of reality, while epistemology is connected with the basis of truth. These two terms help us determine the accuracy of our methods and methodology. Ontology is based on the study of beings. It tells us what exists in our World, and by knowing these things, humans can accrue its knowledge.


Epistemology is the philosophical branch that deals with the nature of knowledge, scope, possibility, and general basis. It is concerned with gaining knowledge, different methods and how to know something. In epistemology, people ask various things such as how you know and what you know and different false ideas from true ones. It is also concerned with the relationship between researcher and reality and how the researcher gains knowledge.

This core branch of philosophy deals with the sides of procuring knowledge. It also deals with the scope and limits of knowledge with the natural resources. It is also a Greek word derived from ‘episteme’ that means logon and expertise. The main aim of Epistemology is to discover the true meaning of life.

Epistemology says that knowledge is a mental state. If anyone thinks that particular thing does not exist, then it’s wrong, and it also shows that you cannot get knowledge about that specific thing. When your belief is true, then it is considered knowledge. But reasoning and evidence are needed to acquire knowledge. When anyone guesses about the things and facts based on misinformation cannot be considered knowledge.

Epistemology is divided into two parts.

  1. Nature of knowledge
  2. Limits of knowledge

The nature of knowledge deals with when a person knows or doesn’t know about a particular thing. The Limits of knowledge define the scope of knowledge and know the limitless knowledge. It tells us that we can know everything or there are certain limits to everything. There are different kinds of knowledge in epistemology.

People gain Empirical knowledge through prior experience. He states that a person who says anything is based on his old ability. When you say the fire is hot, you say it based on your experience. At the same time, empirical knowledge starts from reasoning. For example, when anyone says there is much cold Antarctica, he says it because everyone knows that regions near the south-pole are cold due to less light.

When a person knows the facts, it is called Propositional knowledge. When anyone claims anything, it is called personal knowledge, while collective knowledge has roots in a particular community. These all knowledge are discussed in Epistemology

Ontology and epistemology examples

An ontology consists of an electronic medical record system and classification of various diseases. This classification is without properties based on a hierarchy of terms. Examples of ontology are idealism, ontological monism, dualism, and pluralism.

Let’s explain the role of Epistemology that is prominent in legal affairs for the production of knowledge. It creates awareness in particular aspects of reality by judging pieces of evidence and analyzing logical facts.

It involves analyzing crime scenes and explaining many cases to produce a justification and new information for the knowledge. Example of Epistemology is Scientific Discoveries, Security Issues, Changing the Password and Decision Making.

Ontology and epistemology in research

In research, epistemology works with theories of knowledge. At the same time, Ontology in research is concerned with the existential conditions of culture, social issues and material contexts—an Ontology in research deals with evaluating the nature of reality. 

At the same time, epistemology knows the possible existence of any task. A researcher searches each philosophical position and impacts of the methodology chosen for a unique research problem. The nature of social reality is mainly discussed in ontology, and it assumes the nature of reality. It is observable, measurable, fixed and defined existence.

In simple words, epistemology research deals with knowledge and theory of knowledge and sources from which knowledge is gathered. In the World of research, the terms of the researcher strongly influence the interpretation of data. That’s why the philosophical standpoint should be clear from the beginning.

Ontology in Sociology

Social ontology deals with the relationship and existence of society’s different aspects, such as social structures, cultural norms, and social actors. So, the things discussed in the social ontology are related to issues addressed in society. In particular social reality, the social ontology points to different beliefs of the fundamental nature of reality. 

It is the study of properties of the social World and the study of nature. This branch deals with various entities that arise from social interaction in the World. The main topic discussed in social ontology is the judgment of social groups, the existence of social groups, sorts of entities, and how social groups are created.

It also deals with the collection of social groups, their differences, properties of social groups, their beliefs, and action performed by social groups.

Some other things discussed in the social ontology are corporations, institutions, social classes, races, money, property, artworks, language, genders, art, facts,  and law. Though topics discussed in social ontology overlap with other topics discussed in social scientists, good work in social ontology works within the social ontology.

In social ontology, the more basic questions are about the nature of the social World, its building blocks and social things in general. Some theories say that social entities are constructed from the psychological states of individual people. In contrast, according to t some ideas, social things are built out of actions, and others are made out of practices.

The term’ social ontology’ has been widely used in recent years, but the questions about social nature are searched for in ancient Greece. Social ontology is also considered the branch of metaphysics that deals with the common inquiries about the nature of entities.

Epistemology in Sociology

Epistemology is also called the philosophy of knowledge. It is interested in when and how we know things. In social Epistemology, there is a discussion about social constructs, social facts and differences, similarities between positivism and interpretivism.

The study of epistemology also means knowledge in social science. How can we justify social learning, how can we achieve the knowledge in social science and how a researcher or social scientist realizes social expertise.

Ontology and epistemology of feminism

The feminist ontology discusses the role of men and women in international politics and the role of gender power in building the social structure. Though typical feminists struggle for the equality of gender.

This theory has several approaches such as socialist feminism, liberal feminism and radical feminism. The feminism ontology works and strives for various techniques and feminist ideas for achieving gender equality.

Feminist epistemology tells us how we know the social facts and the location facts affect us. In social epistemology, the social location of individuals consists of social identities of social attributes such as caste, class, gender, race, kinship status, sexual orientation and, trans, much more.

The feminine epistemology initially started in the social sciences in 1998 by Nancy Hartsock and in the political science of sociology by Dorothy Smith.

Ontology and epistemology of constructivism

Constructivism is founded on ontological and cognitive. According to the former concepts, the hypothesis and concepts are constructed by humans rather than the production of intuition, revelation, perception and other innate ideas and products of revelation. It is said that a knower makes the World according to his thoughts.

Constructivism builds from an understanding of social, institutional and natural facilities as constructivism. The ontological institutionalism largely predates different aspects in challenges and anticipates as the new institutionalism.

In the social sciences, epistemology as constructivism motivates us that a researcher thinks upon the paradigms by underpinning their research. In this way, there are other ways to interpret the research results.

Besides this, constructivism is a status in the ontological position of objects. It asserts that unique things that don’t exist independently of minds but are invented by the mind instead of being discovered.

Read also: Ontology in AI; Ontology in Information Science; Ontology of education

External resources: Study.com

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