How many supervolcanoes are there in the world? List

How many supervolcanoes are there in the world? For this concern I have an answer that I hope will be clear and precise.

Supervolcanoes are very rare and have a devastating impact on Earth’s climate and ecology when they erupt.

How many supervolcanoes there are in the world
How many supervolcanoes are there in the world? List 4

According to the United States Geological Survey, there are about 20 known supervolcanoes on Earth, located in different regions such as Indonesia, New Zealand, Japan, Italy, and the United States. The most recent super eruption occurred about 26,500 years ago at the Taupo volcano in New Zealand. The world’s largest supervolcano is Tambora in Indonesia, which is estimated to be around 110 kilometers wide and more than 8,700 feet deep.

There are about 20 known supervolcanoes in the world. Supervolcanoes are volcanoes that are capable of producing eruptions with a volume of at least 1000 cubic kilometers, which is thousands of times larger than normal volcanic eruptions.

These eruptions can have a catastrophic impact on the surrounding area and can even affect the global climate. Some examples of supervolcanoes include the Yellowstone caldera in the United States, Lake Toba in Indonesia, and the Taupo volcanic zone in New Zealand. It’s worth noting that not all supervolcanoes are active or pose an immediate threat.


Supervolcanoes may also be associated with large igneous provinces, which are regions of the Earth’s crust that have been extensively modified by igneous activity on relatively short geological timescales.

Supervolcanic eruptions are extremely rare but very destructive events that can cause lasting climate change and threaten species with extinction. The largest eruption at Yellowstone was 2.1 million years ago and had a volume of 2,450 cubic kilometers.

VEI: How many supervolcanoes there are in the world

VEI stands for Volcanic Explosivity Index. It is a scale used to measure the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions based on several factors, including the volume of erupted material, the height of the eruption column, and the duration of the eruption. The VEI scale ranges from 0 to 8, and each increase in number represents a rash ten times more explosive than the previous one.

A VEI 0 rash is a non-explosive eruption, like a lava flow. VEI 1 eruptions are characterized by mild explosions that produce small amounts of ash and lava flows. VEI 2 eruptions produce larger explosions and more ash, and can cause some damage in the surrounding area.

VEI 3 eruptions are more powerful and can produce ash plumes that rise up to 15 kilometers into the atmosphere, causing disruptions to air traffic and affecting weather. VEI 4 eruptions are even more explosive and can have a significant impact on the surrounding area, while VEI 5 eruptions can be catastrophic, causing widespread damage and loss of life. VEI 6 eruptions are extremely rare, and VEI eruptions 7 and 8 are virtually unprecedented in recorded history.


A VEI 8 eruption is the most powerful volcanic eruption on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scale. It is a hypothetical category for an eruption that would produce more than 1,000 cubic kilometers of volcanic material, with a plume height of more than 25 kilometers, and have a global impact on climate and ecosystems.

It is important to note that no known eruption in human history has been classified as VEI 8, but there is evidence to suggest that such an eruption occurred in the past. The most recent candidate for a VEI 8 eruption was the eruption of the Toba supervolcano in Indonesia about 74,000 years ago, which is thought to have had a significant impact on global climate and human populations. Other potential eruptions of VEI 8 in Earth’s history include the eruption of Fish Canyon Tuff in Colorado, USA, and the eruptions of the Yellowstone hotspot.

Although VEI 8 eruptions are extremely rare, they are of great interest to scientists and have significant implications for our understanding of Earth’s geological history and its potential future. Supervolcanoes are VEI 8, so be alert.

List of supervolcanoes which are

Supervolcanoes what are
How many supervolcanoes are there in the world? List 5
  • Yellowstone Caldera – United States
  • Long Valley Caldera – United States
  • Valles Caldera – United States
  • Taupo Volcanic Zone – New Zealand
  • Aira Caldera – Japan
  • Lake Toba – Indonesia
  • Phlegraean Fields – Italy
  • Campi Flegrei – Italy
  • Caldera de La Garita – United States
  • Cerro Galán – Argentina
  • Maule Lagoon – Chile
  • Uturuncu – Bolivia
  • La pacana – Chile
  • Tatun Group – Taiwan
  • Kikai Boiler – Japan
  • Ilopango – El Salvador
  • Yellowstone Hotspot – United States
  • East African Rift – Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania
  • Volcano Taupo – New Zealand
  • Siberian traps – Russia


The most active and well-known

From the previous list we can extract the 6 most recognized.

The Yellowstone Caldera

Yellowstone Caldera is a large volcanic crater and supervolcano located in Yellowstone National Park in the western United States. The caldera was formed by a massive eruption that occurred about 640,000 years ago, which ejected huge amounts of ash and lava over a wide area. The caldera is about 43 by 28 miles (70 by 45 kilometers) in size and has been the site of several smaller eruptions since its formation.

The Yellowstone Caldera is part of a larger volcanic system fed by a hot spot, a column of hot magma rising from deep in Earth’s mantle. The hotspot has been active for millions of years and has created a series of calderas and lava flows in the eastern part of the Snake River Plain.

The Yellowstone Caldera is one of the most active and monitored volcanic regions in the world, posing a potential threat of another catastrophic eruption in the future. Scientists study the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and biology of the Yellowstone Caldera to understand its history, dynamics, and hazards.


The Long Valley Caldera

The Long Valley Caldera is a large volcanic depression in eastern California, adjacent to Mammoth Mountain. It was formed by a massive eruption about 760,000 years ago that ejected hot ash that then solidified at Bishop Tuff.

The eruption emptied the magma chamber beneath the area and caused the surface to collapse, creating a bowl-shaped caldera measuring about 20 miles long, 11 miles wide and up to 3,000 feet deep. The caldera is surrounded by mountains on all sides except the southeast, where Bishop Tuff descends into the Owens River Gorge.

The caldera has experienced several episodes of volcanic activity since its formation. Shortly after the initial eruption, a resurgent dome rose in the center of the caldera due to magmatic uplift. The dome was partially submerged by a large lake that filled the caldera until it drained through the gorge of the Owens River. The caldera also houses several lava domes, cinder cones, and fissures along its edge and within its basin.

The most recent eruptions occurred about 100,000 years ago at Mammoth Knolls on the eastern edge and about 33,000 years ago at Cone 2652 in the western basin.

The caldera is still thermally and seismically active today, with many hot springs and fumaroles indicating the presence of magma and geothermal fluids below the surface. The caldera also undergoes periodic deformations and uplifts due to changes in the pressure and volume of the magma chamber. A geothermal power plant at Casa Diablo Hot Springs harnesses underground heat to generate electricity for about 40,000 homes. The caldera is monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey for signs of volcanic churning and potential hazards.

Caldera Valles

It is the result of two major eruptions that occurred 1.6 and 1.2 million years ago, respectively. The caldera houses several lava domes, hot springs, fumaroles and natural gas seeps. The highest point of the caldera is Redondo Peak, a 3430 m high resurgent lava dome.

The caldera is part of the Caldera de los Valles National Reserve, a unit of the National Park System. The caldera has a long history of human use, from prehistory to the present day, by various Native American tribes, Spanish and Mexican settlers, and American ranchers and lumberjacks. The caldera is a place of geological, ecological and recreational interest.

Toba Caldera

The Toba caldera is a giant volcanic crater located in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This crater is the result of a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 74,000 years ago, which is the largest eruption on Earth in the last 25 million years.

This eruption released around 2,800 km3 of pyroclastic material and caused significant global climate change. The Toba crater is 100 km long and 30 km wide, and is the largest Quaternary crater in the world. This crater now contains the largest volcanic lake in the world, Lake Toba, which has a maximum depth of 505 m and an area of 1,130 km2. In the middle of the lake is Samosir Island, which is the result of a post-eruption magma push (resurgent dome).

Taupo Caldera

The Taupo caldera is one of the most impressive volcanic structures in the world. It was formed about 25,600 years ago, when the Taupo volcano erupted with unimaginable violence, expelling about 1,170 km3 of rhyolitic magma and creating a depression about 33 km in diameter.

The eruption was so large that it affected the global climate and left a layer of ash that can be found throughout New Zealand and parts of Australia and South America.

The taupo caldera is home to Lake Taupo, the largest freshwater lake in Oceania, with an area of 616 km2 and a maximum depth of 186 m. The lake is a popular tourist destination for its scenery, water activities and sport fishing.

The Taupo volcano is still active and has had another 28 eruptions in the last 30,000 years, the most recent about 1,800 years ago. This eruption, known as the Hatepe eruption, was also very violent and produced pyroclastic flows that swept the area and formed natural barriers that gave rise to the famous Huka Falls. Geologists constantly monitor the Taupo caldera for signs of volcanic activity and prevent possible risks to the population and the environment.

Aira Caldera

Aira Caldera is a volcanic caldera located in Kagoshima Bay on the southern island of Kyushu, Japan. It is part of Kirishima’s larger volcanic group, which includes several other active volcanoes.

The Aira Caldera has a diameter of about 20 kilometers and was formed about 22,000 years ago in a large volcanic eruption. The caldera contains several volcanic peaks, including Mount Sakurajima, which is one of Japan’s most active volcanoes and is known for its frequent eruptions.

The area around Aira Caldera is heavily populated and is a popular tourist destination due to its geothermal activity, hot springs and panoramic views. However, active volcanoes in the area pose a risk to the local population, and there have been several eruptions in the past, including a major eruption of Mount Sakurajima in 1914 that caused widespread damage and casualties.

Today, the area is closely monitored by scientists, and systems are in place to warn residents and visitors in case of volcanic activity. Despite the risks, Aira Caldera remains an important part of Japan’s natural and cultural heritage and attracts visitors from all over the world.

Will they erupt in the near future?

Supervolcanoes are very rare and are defined as volcanoes that have had at least one eruption that resulted in the ejection of more than 1000 cubic kilometers of volcanic material. There are only a few known supervolcanoes in the world, including the Yellowstone Caldera in the United States, the Taupo Caldera in New Zealand, and the Toba Caldera in Indonesia.

While there is always the risk of volcanic activity in these areas, the likelihood of a supervolcano eruption occurring in the near future is considered very low. Scientists continuously monitor these areas using various techniques such as seismometers, gas sensors, and satellite imagery to detect any signs of increased volcanic activity that could lead to an eruption.

It is important to note that volcanic activity can be unpredictable and there is always a level of uncertainty when predicting when and where the next eruption will occur. However, based on current monitoring and scientific understanding, there is no evidence to suggest that the eruption of a supervolcano is imminent in the near future.

Therefore, it is impossible to say for sure when or if a supervolcano will erupt again. The probability of such an eruption occurring in any given year is very low, but not zero. The consequences of such an eruption would be devastating for the environment, society and the local and global economy. Therefore, it is important to study and better understand these volcanoes and prepare for the possible impacts of their eruptions.

Various editions. Last 2013, total restructuring.
Read also: Video What is an earthquake

External resource: Wikipedia

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